40亿美金史上最大 ICO,EOS 疑云

链得得(微信ID:ChainDD)

近期,随着EOS的主网上线临近和启动过程,大众对这一史上最大的ICO区块链项目EOS的期待越来越高,争议也越来越大。今天(6月8日)上午举行的EOS社区会议商讨主网启动,投票结果为暂不启动。

2010年,工程师Daniel Larimer(简称BM)在比特币论坛上发帖表示,中本聪创造的比特币系统实在是太费电了。中本聪则回复他,你看不懂我也懒得和你解释(If you don't believe me or don't get it, I don't have time to try to convince you, sorry)。

2017年,BlockOne成立,Daniel Larimer作为BTS、Steemit的开发者,带领BlockOne的技术团队开发出了一个被称为要取代以太坊的项目EOS。在社区中,他的ID是byte master,也被称为BM。

在项目公开后,EOS在巨大争议和诸多中外资本的追捧中,迅速成为了当之无愧的明星项目,也成为全球历史上,最大规模的一次ICO和区块链融资事件。放在在传统资本历史中,作为尚未上线的早期项目融资规模,这更是前所未有。

据华尔街日报报道,EOS的ICO融资额已经达到40亿美元。EOS没有进行私募,直接进行了ICO公募,始于去年6月26日,定于世界协调时间(UTC)今年6月1日22点59分59秒结束,耗时长达355天,是ICO融资最久的重大区块链项目。

CoinDesk数据显示,去年以来,ICO融资额仅次于EOS的项目分别是Telegram、Dragon、Filecoin和Tezos,融资额分别为17亿美元、3.2亿美元、2.6亿美元和2.3亿美元。

巨大的公募融资,以及与之并不匹配的项目成本和已有能力,让EOS始终处于极大漩涡之中。支持者认为EOS从技术、运营各种角度来看都代表了目前区块链行业的最高水准,而反对者则认为EOS漏洞百出,过度包装,募资去向毫不透明。

陈伟星更是言辞激烈地将其称为“行业毒瘤”。在EOS主网原定上线的日子即将到来的时候,360宣布发现了EOS的“史诗级”漏洞,并且建议EOS推迟上线,把EOS争议再次推向白热化

北京知道创宇创始人,著名安全专家赵伟在接受链得得App采访时表示,自己与团队在BM的沟通中发现,BM竟然会混淆一些安全基础性的概念,其本人在安全技术领域并不专业。本次360发现的漏洞早在2003年左右就出现过,当时非常多的系统都被这个漏洞攻破了,赵伟也曾对这种漏洞攻击方法进行了研究。十五年过去了,基本所有的程序员都已经了解了这种漏洞,但BM还是犯了这个错误。其实前一段时间各个ERC20体系token被清零的漏洞,都是这种漏洞。“可见现在的区块链主链技术开发在安全上多么初级和薄弱”。

关于安全和社区内部意见不统一而极易导致硬分叉的担忧,仅从安全层面而言,EOS就存在不得不进行硬分叉的可能。

在许多人看来,EOS的系统是一个中心化的系统。既然如此,如果仅为了追求效率,为什么不用成熟的支付宝、微信做支付,转而使用另外一个中心化且尚未实测的支付呢?更何况这还是一个中心化系统产生却不受中心化保护的“币”。

赵伟认为,EOS没有利用去中心化的技术构架,是非常容易被分叉的,甚至因为安全原因导致很多分叉。可分叉之后,募资40亿美元的EOS,如何保障全球众多投资人的利益,那40亿美金又将何去何从?因EOS自身缺陷或社区利益博弈导致硬分叉,致使普通投资人的财产损失谁来承担?

若以安全为口实而产生的利益驱动分叉,是更应该被警惕的行为。“大多数的硬分叉都来自于利益不均和超额利益的攫取诉求”,泛城投资集团董事长陈伟星说,“要说硬分叉,任何具备技术、号召力和资金的人都能做到,但如果是在一个漏洞百出的平台上有人有意作恶,那么这场洗劫的游戏就会被无限放大。”

推动这种洗劫游戏的根本动因在于,EOS的代币流通和交易本身,并不受法律、创始人、项目方与投资人任何一方的保护。最坏的情况,即便EOS项目中途烂尾,其团队为期一年全球所募集的40亿美元巨资,也将有去无回。

在中国,对EOS的投资和关注热潮可以说超越了美国。一份2017年6月即在EOS官网发布的,对广大投资人“事先约定”的协议文件,近日因为陈伟星的“炮轰”和披露,再次引发了关注。

在这份协议中明确注明的,EOS所有代币募集的资金都归其开曼公司所有,为该公司收益等的条款,也让很多人匪夷所思。同时,EOS代币的任何问题,他们都不承担责任。

图片译文:EOS代币没有实质权利:EOS代币没有任何明示或暗示的权利,用途,目的,属性,功能或特性,包括但不限于EOS平台上的任何用途,目的,属性,功能或特性。 公司不确保购买者拥有EOS代币的任何权利、用途、目的、属性、功能或特性。

图片译文:购买EOS代币:(a)不向买方提供任何有关本公司或其收入或资产的任何形式的权利,包括但不限于任何投票,分发,赎回,清算,专有(包括所有形式知识产权)或其他财务或法定权利; (b)不是公司贷款; (c)不向买方提供公司的任何所有权或其他权益。

不过EOS的支持者认为,这份协议里的所有条款“免责”约定,都是为了更好的法律生存,获得“合法性”,与此同时,对于BM一定会做到的信任,就是最大的共识。HelloEOS创始人梓岑称:这些都是Block.one为了合规审查不得不做的,做得滴水不漏的教科书式范本。

与此同时,安全公司慢雾科技也公开声明将在EOS主网启动过程中提供全程安全保障。

无论EOS的支持者或反对者,对于这种是否因为“法律合规”,就要把所有法律责任一律撇清,以及协议约定中,把所有募资收入都划归公司收益(区块链通行做法是,募资所得进入基金会),是否违背区块链社区精神,以及是否为“法律合规”的十分必要之举,至今依然存在争议。

美国投资人,芝加哥大学经济学博士Jeffrey Wernick在链得得“不得了”对话交流群里表示,他做了很多年投资,也是很多区块链项目的顾问和投资人,看了很多的法律免责声明和协议,但像EOS这样“完全撇清”,并且将募资所得完全作为公司可任意支配收益的“协议”非常罕见,“我觉得是对投资人的极大不尊重”。

作为全球目前最大的公链,也同样是海外项目的以太坊,同样也有一份针对买卖的公开购买协议文件。6月8日晚,陈伟星再次发布朋友圈称,“EOS与ETH的募资使用差别在于,EOS募集了40亿美元钱归他们自由支配,不承担任何对项目的责任;ETH募集了1840万美元明确用途,用于项目的开发。希望这个行业的人多学学Vitalik的理想主义改变世界,而不是学习某些贪婪的虚假“首富”,一波一波的欺诈性的割新进行业的韭菜,把募集的资金放进自己的口袋!希望block.one未来能把募集的钱用不完的部分捐赠出来给所有“相信”过的人。”

在争议不下中,我们不妨将两者对比,EOS和ETH在购买协议中针对出售Token收入的运用、性质差异、社区未来运营、协议条款修改、仲裁方式、募资情况,看看二者究竟有哪些不同?以下双方资料由泛城数字经济研究院提供,略经链得得App编辑和补充,由读者自行独立判断:

出售 Token 收入的运用对比

在过去一年EOS的公开募资的过程当中,EOS不但没有用户,就连产品都没有真正上线,目前市场上流通的EOS其实是一款ERC20体系代币。在这种情况下,募集的资金在哪里?都用来干什么了?官方既没有说明过,亦无独立的三方机构进行审计。市场的疑虑日渐加深。从销售代币收入方面看,EOS和ETH有哪些区别?EOS通过ICO募集的40亿美金究竟何去何从?

a) EOS原文:Company’s Use of Proceeds. Buyer acknowledges and understands that the proceeds from the sale of the EOS Tokens will be utilized by Company in its sole discretion.

出售EOS token的所有收入都由Block.one团队自行安排使用。

b) ETH原文 :intended use of revenue:

In addition to the Genesis Sale Quantity of ETH, the pre-mining process will create and place a second pool of ETH in the Genesis Block. This second pool of ETH will be directly allocated to early contributors who have worked to develop the ideas, implementations, and supporting structures of the Ethereum project up to the time of the Genesis Sale. The size of this pool will be 9.9% of Genesis Sale Quantity of ETH.

In addition to the Genesis Sale Quantity of ETH and the second pool of ETH, the pre-mining process will create and place a third pool of ETH in the Genesis Block. This third pool of ETH will be directly allocated to the Ethereum Stiftung (Foundation) for payment of future expenses to be determined in its sole discretion. The size of this pool will be 9.9% of Genesis Sale Quantity of ETH.

根据募集的资金量,分成三种资金运用情况。

ETH对于出售的收入有一个相对明确用途规定,根据当时募集情况(31531个BTC,卖出60,102,216个ETH, 合1840万美元。根据初始总发行情况,还有11,900,238个ETH是平分给早期贡献者和基金会),适用第二个情况。其中180万用于发行相关费用,100万用于法律费用,剩下金额的76.5%用于平台的开发,13.5%用于社区的拓展,最后10%用于研发团队的激励。基金会获得的ETH可以由其自行支配。

注解:基于上述内容,可以理解为ETH募集到的所有钱将有明确用途,即首先是用于完成项目(若未来项目没有完成,前提应该是资金全部用完后团队无以为继)。

Token 性质差异对比

a) ETH原文:The Ethereum Platform requires, for proper operation, and comprehensive utilization, a cryptographic fuel called Ether (“ETH”).

This document describes the Genesis Sale in which the fuel token (Ether or ETH) is sold, as well as the perpetual coordinated spontaneous creation of the “cryptofuel.” Parties may be interested in Purchasing ETH (the cryptofuel) in the Genesis Sale to build and power business applications, to pay for coming distributed application services on the Ethereum Platform, to pay for other tokens that may be created on the Ethereum Platform for various applications, or to support the development of the Ethereum Platform.

b) EOS原文:NOT A PURCHASE OF EOS PLATFORM TOKENS. EOS Tokens purchased under this Agreement are not tokens on the EOS Platform. Buyer acknowledges, understands and agrees that Buyer should not expect and there is no guarantee or representation made by Company that Buyer will receive any other product, service, rights, attributes, fuNCTIonalities, features or assets of any kind whatsoever, including, without limitation, any cryptographic tokens or DIGital assets now or in the future whether through receipt, exchange, conversion, redemption or otherwise.

根据购买协议显示,本次购买的EOS token并不是EOS正式平台上的币。EOS 团队也并不承诺或表示买方在未来一定会获得基于EOS平台的任何数字资产或token。

ETH是ETH平台上的一种交易燃料。同时也可以用以支持平台上应用的开发。

社区运营及责任对比

前述区块链和比特币项目的早期参与者Jeffrey Wernick表示:EOS的营销做的非常漂亮,但大多数的持有者更多的是关注资产如何增值,将手中的资产变现。对于EOS的人来说,他们更多的关注是资产如何增值,然后把自己的手里的资产能够变现。在运营层面上,EOS和ETH有哪些区别:

a) EOS原文:Ability to Transact or Resell. Buyer may be unable to sell or otherwise transact in EOS Tokens at any time, or for the price Buyer paid. By using the EOS Distribution Contract or the EOS Token Contract or by purchasing EOS Tokens, Buyer acknowledges, understands and agrees that: (a) EOS Tokens may have no value; (b) there is no guarantee or representation of liquidity for the EOS Tokens; and (c) the block.one Parties are not and shall not be responsible for or liable for the market value of EOS Tokens, the transferability and/or liquidity of EOS Tokens and/or the availability of any market for EOS Tokens through third parties or otherwise.

Reliance on Third-Parties. Even if completed, the EOS.IO Software will rely, in whole or partly, on third parties to adopt and implement it and to continue to develop, supply, and otherwise support it. There is no assurance or guarantee that those third parties will complete their work, properly carry out their obligations, or otherwise meet anyone’s needs, all of might have a material adverse effect on the EOS.IO Software and EOS Platform.

EOS.IO未来的应用、维护和开发主要依靠第三方的参与,不能保证第三方可以完成他们的工作和业务。而Block.one声明对此不负有任何责任,包括未来EOS的市场价值、流动性和可用性等。

b) ETH原文:EthSuisse will be liquidated shortly after creation of genesis block, and EthSuisse anticipates (but does not guarantee) that after it is dissolved the Ethereum Platform will continue to be developed by persons and entities who support Ethereum, including both volunteers and developers who are paid by nonprofit entities interested in supporting the Ethereum Platform.

ETH创世区块挖出后,ETH最初的团队EthSuisse就会解散。ETH后续的开发运营将由支持ETH生态的志愿者们来负责。同时,ETH基金会在未来还将存续,并将其持有的最初归属基金会的一定比例的ETH用于维护社群。

协议条款的修改权利对比

a) ETH 原文:EthSuisse reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to change, modify, add, or remove portions of the Terms and Ether Product Purchase Agreement, at any time during the sale by posting the amended Terms on the Ethereum website (https://www.ethereum.org). Any Purchaser will be deemed to have accepted such changes by purchasing ETH.

The Terms may not be otherwise amended except in a signed writing executed by both the Purchaser and EthSuisse. For purposes of this agreement, "writing" does not include an e-mail message and a signature does not include an eleCTRonic signature.

b) EOS原文:Modification of Agreement. Company may modify this Agreement at any time by posting a revised version on the Website, available at https://eos.io/purchase_agreement. The modified terms will become effective upon posting. It is Buyer’s responsibility to check the Website regularly for modifications to this Agreement. This Agreement was last modified on the date listed at the beginning of this Agreement.

关于协议修订的问题,ETH和EOS团队都有权利对协议条款进行修改。但是ETH对条款进行修改后需要ETH团队和买方共同签字执行(电子邮件和电子签名都不被接受)。

但是EOS协议仅表述为修改后的协议一经上传,立刻生效,不需要买方认可。

仲裁方式的不同点对比

ETH原文:The arbitration panel shall consist of one arbitrator only, unless the ICC Court of Arbitration determines that the dispute is such as to warrant three arbitrators. If the Court determines that one arbitrator is sufficient, then such arbitrator shall be selected from Switzerland. If the Court determines that three arbitrators are necessary, then each party shall have 30 days to nominate an arbitrator of its choice -- in the case of the Claimant, measured from receipt of notification of the ICC Court’s decision to have three arbitrators; in the case of Respondent, measured from receipt of notification of Claimant’s nomination. All nominations must be from Switzerland. If a party fails to nominate an arbitrator, the Court will do so. The Court shall also appoint the chairman.

b) EOS原文:Binding Arbitration. Any Dispute not resolved within 90 days as set forth in Section 9.1 shall be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration under the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) rules in effect at the time of the arbitration, except as they may be modified herein or by mutual agreement of the Parties. The number of arbitrators shall be one who shall be selected by Company.

关于争议解决的问题,ETH约定提交国际商会组织(ICC)后,由ICC决定是以一位仲裁员还是三位仲裁员决定。若三位,则双方各有30天来决定一位人选。人选条件主要按照ICC规定选拔。

而EOS直接约定仲裁员只有一位,且由Block.one决定人选。

注解:相比较于ETH的仲裁,EOS确定的仲裁方式完全保障EOS方的利益,并不公平。

ETH 和 EOS 的募集资金对比

尽管有以上极大不同,根据ETH和EOS购买协议内容,二者在项目开发的保证、token的权利、免责行为、分发风险、退款、未来价格、责任限制、第三方相关损失、最大责任金额方面却有相似之处,但有细微差别:

项目开发的保证对比

ETH和EOS都不保证各自项目未来一定能开发成功并上线运营。即使能上线运营,也不对项目未来成功与否给出承诺。项目有可能因为各种原因失败。

注解:虽然ETH和EOS团队在项目开发的保证上相似,但是结合前述关于募集资金的运用的不同,可以理解为仍存在以下细微差异:即当ETH项目失败时,募集到的资金理论上应该是已经全部花完。而EOS不能确定其项目失败时,募集资金是否已经被充分利用。

关于ETH coin和EOS token的权利对比

ETH coin和EOS token都表示其不代表任何价值。但是EOS具体说明即使未来EOS平台上线,EOS.IO开发完成并落地应用,公司也不承诺、不保证EOS代币未来有任何权利、用途或者价值等。

此外,EOS更进一步声明EOS不能作为任何的金融产品或衍生产品。以规避被认定为证券的风险。

最后,EOS还重申了EOS TOKEN不代表对公司收入、资产、分配、投票等有任何法律权力。也不代表对公司的贷款或者任何所有权。

买方购买token行为的免责对比

ETH和EOS协议中都要求买方声明承诺购买行为时基于其自身的风险判断和现有技术情况的判断。团队都没有对未来币的任何属性和功能进行承诺。

Token 分发的风险对比

ETH和EOS发放的过程中都不是完全不会出错的,ETH和EOS团队都不对币发放过程中发生系统错误引发的损失承担责任。

退款权利对比

ETH 原文:ALL PURCHASES OF ETH ARE FINAL. PURCHASES OF ETH ARE NON-REFUNDABLE.

EOS原文:PURCHASE OF EOS TOKENS ARE NON-REFUNDABLE AND PURCHASES CANNOT BE CANCELLED. BUYER MAY LOSE ALL AMOUNTS PAID.

任何情况下,ETH和EOS都不会接受退款。

未来的价格和流动性承诺对比

a) ETH原文:By purchasing ETH, you expressly acknowledge and represent that you fully understand that ETH may experience volatility in pricing and will not seek to hold any of the EthSuisse Parties liable for any losses or any special, incidental, or consequential damages arising from, or in any way connected to the sale of ETH.

b) EOS原文:By using the EOS Distribution Contract or the EOS Token Contract or by purchasing EOS Tokens, Buyer acknowledges, understands and agrees that: (a) EOS Tokens may have no value; (b) there is no guarantee or representation of liquidity for the EOS Tokens; and (c) the block.one Parties are not and shall not be responsible for or liable for the market value of EOS Tokens, the transferability and/or liquidity of EOS Tokens and/or the availability of any market for EOS Tokens through third parties or otherwise.

ETH和EOS都不对其未来价格的巨大波动承担责任。

EOS更具体的声明除价格外,token的流通性和可用性等都不在其保证范围内。

责任限制对比

a) ETH原文:THE PURCHASER ACKNOWLEDGES AND AGREES THAT, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY ANY APPLICABLE LAW, THE DISCLAIMERS OF LIABILITY CONTAINED HEREIN APPLY TO ANY AND ALL DAMAGES OR INJURY WHATSOEVER CAUSED BY OR RELATED TO USE OF, OR INABILITY TO USE, ETH OR THE ETHEREUM PLATFORM UNDER ANY CAUSE OR ACTION WHATSOEVER OF ANY KIND IN ANY JURISDICTION, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ACTIONS FOR BREACH OF WARRANTY, BREACH OF CONTRACT OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE) AND THAT NONE OF THE ETHSUISSE PARTIES SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, GOODWILL OR DATA, IN ANY WAY WHATSOEVER ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF, OR INABILITY TO USE, OR PURCHASE OF, OR INABILITY TO PURCHASE, ETH.

b) EOS原文:To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, Buyer disclaims any right or cause of action against the block.one Parties of any kind in any jurisdiction that would give rise to any Damages whatsoever, on the part of any block.one Party. Each of the block.one Parties shall not be liable to Buyer for any type of Damages, even if and notwithstanding the extent a block.one Party has been advised of the possibility of such Damages. Buyer agrees not to seek any refund, compensation or reimbursement from a block.one Party, regardless of the reason, and regardless of whether the reason is identified in this Agreement.

ETH和EOS都会起承担的责任进行了限制。ETH的免责声明适用于因使用或无法使用ETH或ETH平台而造成的各种损失。ETH团队不对这些损失承担任何责任。

EOS团队则要买方承诺放弃对Block.one方的诉讼权。并且Block.one不对造成的任何损失负责。不管什么原因,买方都同意不向Block.one相关方索取任何退款、赔偿。

第三方相关损失

ETH和EOS都声明对于买方和其他第三方之间的行为和争议不承担责任。

最大责任金额

虽然ETH和EOS对自身责任进行了限制,甚至豁免。但是还是兜底约定,其各自能承担的最大责任金额不超过买方支付的购买价款。

随着即将正式到来的主链上线,关于EOS的继续走势和发展,链得得还将继续关注。

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